BLOOD TESTS

Thanks to Krissie for providing the following Info on Blood Tests. I hope to include an explanation of each reading soon.

UK
These are the normal blood ranges in the UK for a full blood count hope these help

Test Range Units
CRP C-Reactive protein < 10 mg/l
White Cell Count 4.0 - 11.0 109/l
Neutrophils 2.0 - 7.5 109/l
Lymphocytes 1.5 - 4.5 109/l
Monocytes 0.2 - 0.8 109/l
Eosinophils 0.4 - 0.4 109/l
Basophils 0.0 - 0.01 109/l
Test Range Units
Haemoglobin 13.0 - 18.0 g/dl Male
Haemoglobin 11.5 - 16.5 g/dl Female
Red Cell Count 4.5 - 6.5 1012/l Male
Red Cell Count 3.8 - 5.8 1012/l Female
Mean Cell Volume 77 - 95 fl
Haematocrit 0.4 - 0.52 Male
Haematocrit 0.36 - 0.47 Female
MCH 27.0 - 32.0 pg
MCHC 32.0 - 36.0 g/dl
Platelets 150 - 400 109/l

Ranges for tests other than fbc

Test Range Units
Reticulocytes 0.5 - 2.5 %
ESR 2 - 12 mm/hour
PV 1.44 - 1.7 cp
Serum B12 150 -750 ng/l
Serum Folate 2.0 - 11.0 ug/l
Red cell Folate 120 - 750 ug/l
Ferritin 15 - 300 ug/l
Test Range Units
INR 1.0 - 1.2
APTT 20-36 Seconds
Fibrinogen 1.5 - 4.5 g/l
Hb A2 1.7 - 3.5 %
Hb F >1 %

USA

Reference Range (conventional units*)

Acidity (pH) 7.35 - 7.45
Alcohol 0 mg/dL (more than 0.1 mg/dL normally indicates intoxication) (ethanol)
Ammonia 15 - 50 µg of nitrogen/dL
Amylase 53 - 123 units/L
Ascorbic Acid 0.4 - 1.5 mg/dL
Bicarbonate 18 - 23 mEq/L (carbon dioxide content)
Bilirubin Direct: up to 0.4 mg/dL
Total: up to 1.0 mg/dL
Blood Volume 8.5 - 9.1% of total body weight
Calcium 8.5 - 10.5 mg/dL (normally slightly higher in children)
Carbon Dioxide Pressure 35 - 45 mm Hg
Carbon Monoxide Less than 5% of total hemoglobin
CD4 Cell Count 500 - 1500 cells/µL
Ceruloplasmin 15 - 60 mg/dL
Chloride 98 - 106 mEq/L

Complete Blood Cell Count (CBC)

Tests include: hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, white Blood cell count

Copper Total: 70 - 150 µg/dL
Creatine Kinase (CK or CPK) Male: 38 - 174 units/L
Female: 96 - 140 units/L
Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes 5% MB or less
Creatinine 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes Test includes: calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sodium

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR or Sed-Rate) (This determines the rate that red blood cells settle to the bottom of the tube. If they settle faster than normal this can suggest infection, anaemia, inflammation , rheumatoid arthritis. This is the common blood test performed to measure rate of inflammation, determine a flare but in some people can remain normal )

Male 1 - 13 mm/hr
Female: 1 - 20 mm/hr
Glucose Tested after fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL
Hematocrit Male: 45 - 62%
Female: 37 - 48%
Hemoglobin Male: 13 - 18 gm/dL
Female: 12 - 16 gm/dL
Iron 60 - 160 µg/dL (normally higher in males)
Iron-binding Capacity 250 - 460 µg/dL
Lactate (lactic acid) Venous: 4.5 - 19.8 mg/dL
Arterial: 4.5 - 14.4 mg/dL
Lactic Dehydrogenase 50 - 150 units/L
Lead 40 µg/dL or less (normally much lower in children)
Lipase 10 - 150 units/L
Zinc B-Zn 70 - 102 µmol/L
Lipids:
Cholesterol Less than 225 mg/dL (for age 40-49 yr; increases with age)
Triglycerides 10 - 29 years 53 - 104 mg/dL
30 - 39 years 55 - 115 mg/dL
40 - 49 years 66 - 139 mg/dL
50 - 59 years 75 - 163 mg/dL
60 - 69 years 78 - 158 mg/dL
> 70 years 83 - 141 mg/dL

Liver Function Tests Tests include bilirubin (total), phosphatase (alkaline), protein (total and albumin), transaminases (alanine and aspartate), prothrombin (PTT)
Please click each to view an individual test value.

Magnesium 1.5 - 2.0 mEq/L
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) 27 - 32 pg/cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) 32 - 36% hemoglobin/cell
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) 76 - 100 cu µm
Osmolality 280 - 296 mOsm/kg water
Oxygen Pressure 83 - 100 mm Hg
Oxygen Saturation (arterial) 96 - 100%
Phosphatase, Prostatic 0 - 3 units/dL (Bodansky units) (acid)
Phosphatase 50 - 160 units/L (normally higher in infants and adolescents) (alkaline)
Phosphorus 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL (inorganic)
Platelet Count 150,000 - 350,000/mL
Potassium 3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) 0 - 4 ng/mL (likely higher with age)
Proteins:
Total 6.0 - 8.4 gm/dL
Albumin 3.5 - 5.0 gm/dL
Globulin 2.3 - 3.5 gm/dL

Prothrombin (PTT) 25 - 41 sec
Pyruvic Acid 0.3 - 0.9 mg/dL
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) 4.2 - 6.9 million/µL/cu mm

Sodium 135 - 145 mEq/L
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 0.5 - 6.0 µ units/mL
Transaminase:
Alanine (ALT) 1 - 21 units/L
Aspartate (AST) 7 - 27 units/L

Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 7 - 18 mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5 - 35
Uric Acid Male 2.1 to 8.5 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
Female 2.0 to 7.0 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
Vitamin A 30 - 65 µg/dL
White Blood Cell Count (WBC) 4,300 - 10,800 cells/µL/cu mm
*Please visit our measurement and abbreviation pages.

BODY SURFACE AREA CALCULATOR (weight (kg) x 0.425) x (height (cm) x 0.725) 139.315

IDEAL BODY WEIGHT CALCULATOR Male: 50 Kg + (# inches > 5 ft x 2.3) Female: 45.5 Kg + (# inches > 5 ft x 2.3)

Low numbers of platelets can make a person vulnerable to bleeding, sometimes even without injury occurring. Causes of low platelet counts include autoimmune diseases where you produce an antibody to your own platelets, chemotherapy, leukaemia, viral infections and some medicines.

High numbers of platelets make a person more vulnerable to blood clots. High platelet counts are found in conditions involving the bone marrow such as leukaemia and cancer.

One of the most important red blood cell tests is used to find out how much haemoglobin there is in the blood. Haemoglobin carries oxygen around your body. This is called the haemoglobin concentration or level.

Another important test, the mean corpuscular volume or MCV test, measures the size of the red blood cells.

If a person suffers from anaemia their haemoglobin level will always be less than normal. But the size of the red blood cells depends on the type of anaemia you have.

A haematocrit test measures the total volume that red blood cells take up in the blood. In practice, this is done by spinning a test tube of blood until the red blood cells - the heaviest part of the blood - go to the bottom of the tube. Then their volume is calculated.

Almost all types of anaemia will cause a low haematocrit (a low red blood volume), as will very severe bleeding. A high haematocrit can occur if a person is dehydrated from not drinking enough fluid or because they are losing fluid as happens with diarrhoea, burns and sometimes surgery.

If the red blood cells are pale, it can be a sign of iron deficiency anaemia. If they have a strange shape, it may be because of sickle cell anaemia or pernicious anaemia.

Doctors also add stains to the blood smear to test the blood for parasites, for example in the case of sleeping sickness or malaria. They may also test for bacteria in the case of blood poisoning.

White blood cells (WBC)

The doctor counts the total number of white blood cells and works out how many different types of white blood cells the patient has. This is called the differential WBC count.

The number of white blood cells may go up and this may be because of a bacterial infection, bleeding or a burn. More rarely the cause of a raised white count is due to leukaemia, cancer or malaria.

A person may lose white blood cells because they have autoimmune problems - this is where the antibodies that should fight diseases attack the body instead. Other reasons for loss of white blood cells include viral infections. More rarely, this can be a side effect of certain kinds of medication.

Doctors keep an eye on white blood cells to work out how a disease is changing. By monitoring the blood count in this way they can alter the patient's treatment as necessary.

SEE ALSO: 'Reviewing blood tests'

Updated April 2005